Saturday, October 28. 1704.

Numb. 68.

OUR last Review brought on the great Argument of the Hungarians being the Causes of the War with the Turks, in 1682.

And first, I might ask our Opponents to produce any other Reason for that War; and to shew us, what even the Turks themselves had to alledge against the Emperor?

In all the Embassies the Emperor made to the Port, and in all the Treaties with the Turks, there was not one Pretence ever offered, why the Port was disgusted; no such thing as Reparation or Satisfaction Demanded, but in the last offer, which the Turk ever made to the Emperor; this was the main thing the Bassa insisted on, viz. That it should be Lawful for the Turks to assist the Malecontents of Hungaria.

Now let any Man but consider, what sort of a Peace this must have been, that the Emperor must have been ty’d up to have acted no Hostilities on the Turks, and at the same time they were at Liberty to have brought down the whole Force of the Ottoman Empire upon him, under the specious sham of assisting the HungariansContinue reading Saturday, October 28. 1704.

Tuesday, September 19. 1704.

Numb. 57.

I cannot go back from the Charges in the last Review, as to the Hungarians calling in the Turks. The Count Westelini, who was Palatine of Hungary, in the Year 1676, was openly engag’d in the Troubles of that Time; and as it was his Post to Command the Military as well as the Civil Power, he made no scruple, tho’ a Roman Catholick, to head the whole Body of the Malecontents, and joyn with them in taking Arms against the Emperor.

Some say he turn’d Protestant before he died, and that he was so in his Heart from the beginning; but, as that does no where appear to me, so it does not seem Material to the present Argument, whether he did or no.

Sir Roger Manly, in his Continuation of Sir Paul Rycaut’s History of the Turks, gives us a short Abridgment of the beginning of that Insurrection, which I shall re-abridge in as short a manner, as will consist with the length of my Paper.

’Tis true, there had been several Insurrections, and designs of Insurrection before that, but as the Causes were generally the same, the Abstract of this, may very reasonably pass for an Introduction into the whole Story. Continue reading Tuesday, September 19. 1704.

Saturday, September 16. 1704.

Numb. 56.

I Advanc’d a Proposition last Paper, That there is some difference between Popish and Turkish Tyranny, in opposition to those People, who have had the Turks have taken Vienna.

I presume, that when I say those People were Mad, or out of their Sences, ’tis the kindest thing I can say of them; for unless I will suppose them so, I can do no less than offer Reasons why they would think it proper to have all the German Empire stoop to the Green Ensigns of Mahomet, and the Turkish Half-Moon Erected on the Tops of their Spires, in the room of the Cross.

I Confess ’tis a hard Choice; and I hope we shall never be put to that Nicety to determine, whether Christendom shall be devoured by Popery, or Mahometanism; whether Turkish or Popish Tyranny shall over-run Europe.

But if that unhappy Crisis were come, I think every considering Protestant would soon resolve, that ’tis better of the two to be oppres’d by the Errors of Christianity, than the Enemies of it; if I am to be Murthered, Rob’d, Plundered and Destroyed, I had rather a Roman Catholick was the Butcher, than a Turk; I had rather he had the Power over me, that acknowledges Christ, than he that despises him, and defies him; rather he that kills me, because I don’t Worship Jesus his way, than he that does it, because I own him at all. Continue reading Saturday, September 16. 1704.

Tuesday, September 12. 1704.

Numb. 55.

I Am now upon a Question, Concerning the Oppressions of the Hungarians, by the Emperor’s Ministers.

I am not going to lessen their Grievances, nor indeed, to enquire into the Particulars; if they have been us’d as we are told they have, ’tis bad enough.

But the Case before us, is to bring the Subject of Complaint, and the Persons complaining, to a fair Head, and make the great Relative here agree with the Antecedent.

The Question is, Have the German’s opprest the Hungarians, as a Nation, or have they Persecuted and Injur’d them as Protestants? Continue reading Tuesday, September 12. 1704.

Tuesday, August 8. 1704.

Numb. 45.

IN Relating the Practice of all Wise Princes defending their own Territories, before they invaded their Neighbours; I come to the late King William, when Prince of Orange, Besieging Bonn.

It follows to examine, What Course the French King took in this Case: Did he, like the Swedes in Poland, push on his Conquests in the Netherlands, and leave the Dutch and German Army to Enter Lorrain, and Consequently France, and Ravage them at Pleasure? No: but finding he had taken so many strong Towns, as Employ’d him 100000 Men to Garrison, and that the Confederates, by taking Bonn had cut off the Communication between his Troops on the Upper Rhine, and those in Holland, and opened a way for their own to joyn; and that France lay Naked on that side; like a Wise Prince he chose the least Evil, he abandon’d at once, all his low Country Conquests to draw his Forces together, in Defence of his own Dominions; and this he did with such hast, that he quitted 42 Strong Places, in 16 or 20 days time.

I have not room to give an Encomium here to the Policy of the Prince of Orange, who could so sensibly touch the French in so nice an Article, as to regain from them so many Invincible Places, without the loss of a Man: Other Authors have made Great and Just Remarks on this, Sir William Temple in particular.

But I cannot refrain doing Justice to the K. of France, who, in this, show’d himself a true Father of his own Country, in that he chose to abandon all his Glory, quit the hopes he had entertain’d of so delicious a Conquest, as the Netherlands, two thirds of which he had in Possession; and all this to retrieve a Mistake, prevent the insulting of his own Country, and the Ruin of but one Province of his Inheritance. Continue reading Tuesday, August 8. 1704.

Saturday, July 29. 1704.

Numb. 42.

HE is but a sorry Physician that tells us a Disease, but prescribes no Remedy: I have Entertain’d the World, in three Reviews together, with the Case of the Swedes, in the Dispute with Poland, and the War of the North; I have insisted long upon this Head, and ventur’d at an Essay on the great Damage done the Confederacy in General, and the Protestant Religion in Particular; I have said much of their opening a Gap in the Confederacy, at which the French Power has broke in; and I am yet unconvinc’d of any Mistake in the Matter.

I am oblig’d now to apply the Remedy to this Evil, and answer this great Question, How shall we help it?

I confess I could better have answered it six Months ago, and shown how you might have help’d it, than I can say now how it shall be help’d; but it may not be too late yet, especially if the King of Poland and the Confederacy can hold out but one Year longer.

If any Man ask me why I make an if of the latter, I answer, If the Duke of Marlborough succeeds in his Design on Bavaria, there is no doubt indeed of it; but if that had either been not undertaken, or had miscarried, I would not have answered for the Subsistence of the Confederacy one Year longer. Continue reading Saturday, July 29. 1704.

Tuesday, July 4. 1704.

Numb. 35.

IT seems to me something hard, That the Impatient World cannot refrain their Conclusions, before I am come to mine.

This I find is the effect of Writing a History by Inches; Mankind expects every piece should be entire, and bear a reading by it self: If it must be so, I confess my self incapable; the Scheme is otherways laid, and a half Sheet of Paper can’t do it.

My Design in this History of the French Affairs, is as vast in Proportion, as theirs in Contriving; and as it requires time to finish, it ought to have the Privilege of being view’d whole, before ’tis Condemn’d.

Asking his Pardon for the Allusion, I take my self to be just in Sir Christopher Wren’s Case, about the Building of St. Paul’s. Continue reading Tuesday, July 4. 1704.

Tuesday, April 18. 1704.

Numb. 13.

THe Cevennois are not so much the Miracle of this Age, as ’tis a Wonder to me the Accounts we have had of them should obtain so much in an Age, so incredulous as this.

I cannot think ’tis my Business to enter into a Debate of Original Right in such an undertaking as this; and to concern these Sheets with an Enquiry into the Justice of their taking Arms, and the Reasonableness of their being Oppress’d for Matters of Conscience.

That the Christian Religion does no way justify the oppression of the Conscience, we who call ourselves Protestants generally grant; but how far those Oppressions justify the Subject in defending themselves, is a point so hotly debated, that in this Paper, wherein I carefully avoid the Strife of Parties, I shall not enter into the Dispute.

Besides, as I have frequently Ingag’d in the Argument on other occasions, I think ’tis needless to Examine a Case, here, which ought to take up a whole Volume by it self. Continue reading Tuesday, April 18. 1704.

Saturday, April 15. 1704.

Numb 12.

THE method for raising Men in France for the Land-Service, was the last Instance, of the Absolute Dominion of the King, and a Proof of its being Adapted, and particularly Useful to the promoting the Greatness of his Power and his Conquests abroad.

For the Sea, his Methods are equally Absolute, and as positively Obey’d, when first he Resolv’d to make himself Great at Sea; and if Fame belies not our Politick Managers of that day, receiv’d Helps and Instructions from England for that Purpose; I mean, for Building Ships of War; the Great Defect, which he found almost Insuperable, and an Obstruction which wou’d have Discouraged any Prince in the World but himself, was his want of Sea-men; and so far was he from being in a Condition to Supply himself by Ordinary Methods, that if I am rightly inform’d, upon a most Exact Scrutiny, in all the Ports of his Kingdom, he found, that if all the Ships belonging to his Subjects where wholly laid up, and Trade laid by, all the Seamen in his Dominions would not Man his Navy; that is, such a Navy as he then had designed to Build.

Measures were then immediately taken to Increase the Number of Seamen, and the Building of his Ships went on with the usual Success of all his Undertakings: The first Method for Encrease of Sea-men, was to Compel every Merchant’s Ship, Fishing-Boat and other Vessel in his Kingdom, to take on Board, over and above their usual Compliment, so many Men on the King’s Account, to whom the King allow’d Certain Wages, and the Merchant or Master, Victuals and Drink. This Project being begun in a Time of Peace, when France was full of Men; the Men crowded on Board the Vessels as a Favour, Happy was he could get to be Nam’d; and thus in 7 Years time, the King made above 20000 Sailors; by this time his Ships Encreas’d, and he always kept a Squadron at Sea, let there be Occasion or no; and if he had no Service ready, he often thought fit to make little Sea-Wars, to introduce his Men, to shew them some Action, and raise the Credit of his Sea Affairs: Such was the two or three Bombardments of Algiers, and one at Genoa, Convoys to Constantinople, Insulting Tunis, and the like; this was about the Year 1678, when these Additions were made, and his Sea-men from that time began so to Encrease, that in the Year ’91“the Year 91” in HRC 1 and HRC 2. In Secord there is what appears to be a vaguely visible apostrophe before “91,” but it is impossible to discern whether this is a correction or a happily placed stray mark on the page., we found them able to Man a Fleet of 80 Sail in the Line of Battle, and [62] Challenge both English and Dutch, to an Engagement at our own doors.

The next Article of Absolute Power, is the raising of Money; What may not that Monarch do, who has the Bodies of the Poor, the Purses of the Rich, and the Hands of his Nobility at his Absolute Command?

We find the Revenues of France, tho’ vastly Great, not equal to the more vast Designs of this Growing Monarch; we find, that at a Time, when we all thought he had enough to do, to find Money to Defray his prodigious Expences, he yet undertook the Regulation and Support of the Needy Craving Monarchy of Spain; but when it comes to the Test, we find also, if it be in the Nation, he will never want it. If half the Stories we have been told, of the Poverty, Ruin, Depopulation, &c. of France, were true, how could it be possible the King cou’d raise such immense Summs Yearly, and almost every Year Increasing, as we find he does. Continue reading Saturday, April 15. 1704.

Tuesday, April 11. 1704.

Numb. 11.

THe Debate I entred into, about the Banishment of the Hugonots out of France, was so abruptly broken off in the last, that I must go on with it here, and repeat this part as necessary to lead the Reader back into the Story. That I am of the Opinion, the King of France’s Banishing the Protestants, tho’ it Impoverish’d and Unpeopled part of the Country; and tho’ it fill’d his Enemies with Soldiers, yet at the same time it was the most Politick Action of his Life, and the Foot upon which he now builds that Absolute Dominion, which is so necessary for the carrying on all his vast Designs.

I don’t think fit to engage here in a Dispute about the honesty of it, I agree to all that has been reasonably said to that point; and without doubt, the breaking and dissolving the Edict of Nants, is an Injury not to be Defended.

But as to the Policy of it: ’Tis plain it was so great a Stroke to all Europe, that all his Attempts since have been founded upon this Head; for till he had first cleared his Country of that Numerous Injured People, he could never have ventured to carry an Offensive War into all the Borders of Europe: Nor could he have spared his Numerous Armies, for so many various Enterprizes; he must have maintained strong Garrisons in the Provinces of Guienne, Gascoign, Languedoc, Normandy, Bretaign, &c. where the Protestants were Numerous, to have kept the Rod of Iron upon their Backs, and every Revolt would have hazarded a Revolution of his Affairs.

This needs no other Demonstration, than from the Present Disturbance his Affairs have receiv’d from the smallest handful of these People, in the Mountains of Languedoc. These Camisars, who, according to the largest Accounts I have met with, which I think deserve Credit, never amounted to above 900 Families, have occasioned the Attendance of a Mareshal of France, 18 Battalions of Foot, and 2 Regiments of Dragoons, for near 2 Years. Continue reading Tuesday, April 11. 1704.