I Am not justifying here the Honour of such Princes Proceedings, who fall upon their Neighbours, and begin Wars and Hostilities, without pretence of Quarrel, and without Declaring first their Resolution.
But for the Edification of those Gentlemen; who are willing the Swedes should ruin the King of Poland, because he Assaulted them without a just Ground; I would recommend to their consideration, how the Hungarians joyn’d with the Turks, in a War against the Emperor, under the obligation of a Solemn Peace, unbroken, and which had three Years yet to come, and without any ground of Complaint on the Turks behalf.
Nay, so openly, and against all Justice and Honour did the Turks break this Peace, that when afterwards the Losses and Destruction of the War, brought them to think their Priests at Constantinople exclaim’d against the injustice of it, and the Rabble Sacrificed those who had been the occasion of it; Declaring their great Prophet Mahomet was Angry at their beginning so Dishonourable a War; and Teckely himself was in no small danger among them upon this Account.
Yet I never read that our Hungarians, and who, some would have all call’d Protestants, made the least scruple of the Turks denying the Emperor this Ceremony, but treated his Imperial Majesty in all Cases, as if he was a Person with whom no Measures were to be observed, breaking all their Truces and Cessations, seizing their Magazines, intercepting his Convoys, even when under Treaties and Capitulations. Continue reading Tuesday, October 10. 1704.
I Am now upon a Question, Concerning the Oppressions of the Hungarians, by the Emperor’s Ministers.
I am not going to lessen their Grievances, nor indeed, to enquire into the Particulars; if they have been us’d as we are told they have, ’tis bad enough.
But the Case before us, is to bring the Subject of Complaint, and the Persons complaining, to a fair Head, and make the great Relative here agree with the Antecedent.
The Question is, Have the German’s opprest the Hungarians, as a Nation, or have they Persecuted and Injur’d them as Protestants? Continue reading Tuesday, September 12. 1704.
I Came in the last Review, to some Nice distinctions, which I cannot but think very necessary, in Order to make the Understanding of the Present Case easy, as to the Hungarians and the Emperor.
I have Granted as much in behalf of the Hungarians, as can in Reason be desired: I have allow’d them to be Oppress’d, Persecuted, Plunder’d and ill Treated, even more than I can heartily suppose they have been; I admit all the hard words they give the Emperor of Germany and the Jesuits; all the Blood and Rapine Committed, or pretended to be Committed, upon the poor Protestants of that Distracted Kingdom; and all this, whether true or no, I Grant, to avoid the trouble of the Argument.
This may perhaps make it justifiable for them to Depose the King of Hungaria, but it cannot make out a Reason, why they should depose the Emperor of Germany; suppose Male Administration does qualify People for the Disciplining their Governours, deposing their Princes, and the like; it does not at the same time furnish them with a Title to Invade their Neighbours; it may lead them to dismiss Tyrants, but not to meddle with any Tyrants but their own; Insurrections of People may be for the Recovery or Defence of Liberty, never for the making of Conquests –
If they proceed to Conquests and Invasions, there is certainly something else in their Design than the Recovery of their Liberty, and the settling Religion: The Grievances of the Hungarians can give them no Title to Ravage Moravia, Plunder and Destroy Austria. Continue reading Tuesday, September 5. 1704.
I Have done with the Swedes: Monsieur L—n may concern himself to defend the Polish Election, in what Way and Method he pleases; I am perswaded he will never Compass it to his Master’s Reputation.
Conquest indeed may go a great way; Victory is so Sacred a thing, and Men are so apt to give the Sanction of Right, where Heaven gives the Blessing of Success, that to Argue against the Justice of that Cause, to which the Sword gives the Authority, is almost to oppose the General Stress of Human Reasoning.
If Stanislaus the Palatin of Posen, for as yet I can call him no more, by the Assistance of the Swede, Conquers the present King of Poland, who shall dispute his being Lawful King? I question whether the King of Sweden himself, or half the Kings in Europe have better Titles.
If Conquest be not a Lawful Title to a Crown, we must go back to the Oracle and Enquire, where the Grand Spring of Title is to be found; and unless the People come in to help us out, I doubt we shall be at a loss. Continue reading Saturday, September 2. 1704.
I Hinted in the last Review the Scandal rais’d on this Undertaking, viz. That it does not please every body; I hope some of the Gentlemen Objectors will take that Note for an Answer, as particularly the Gentleman who is so Angry at my Opinion, concerning the Consequences of the late Victory; and so much for Objectors.
’Tis my Satisfaction that they cannot, nor indeed have they attempted to Answer the Reasons brought on this Head; when they can, I shall most readily alter my Opinion.
I am of Opinion I have sin’d against Novelty in the Article of Sweden, and as most People have this Vice in their Judgments, to be always cloy’d with a long Story, I might have dwelt upon the Swedish Affair too long: The Fancy is the Weather-cock of the Soul, and ’tis always Vereing with the Gusts of Novelty; Men are eternally gapeing after Variety, and no Story can be so well told, as to please them, if it be too long in telling.
And yet I cannot satisfy my self to close with this humour of the Town, and quit a Subject, before I have gone thro’ it, to please the Luxuriance of the World’s imagination; such as think me dull, only because I am long, are like those that don’t approve of the Sermon, because they don’t love the Parson. Continue reading Tuesday, August 29. 1704.
OUR former Reviews have a little examined the Consequences of the Swedes, upon any disgust, going over to, and joyning with the French.
I think I set down the several Places where in such a Case he must, or should at least maintain Armies to defend his own Country; I resume that Head now, because I promis’d to shew the French could not be useful to them in such a Case.
’Tis very rational to suppose, that he could not joyn with France, but the King of Denmark would find it for his own Safety and Interest, to joyn with the Confederates; it was never known in any War, that those two Nations were ever of one side, they have had more Wars together than any two Nations in Christendom, even more than the Emperor and the Turks.
There is an indelible Jealousy rooted in the Hearts of them, one against another; and Providence, who Governs the whole World, seems to have plac’d it there, to provide for the rest; for should those two Nations agree together, their Country being the Magazine of the World for Naval Stores, it would be in their Power almost to tell any part of the World, as to Sea Affairs, when they should Fight, and when they should Submit; when they should fit out a Fleet, and when they should let it alone. Continue reading Tuesday, August 22. 1704.
POssibly they that call’d the Author of these Papers French Pensioner before, will call him Polish Pensioner now — And ’tis all one — The Thread of this Undertaking must describe it self; and according to the first pretence, I shall keep an unbarras’d freedom, without any regard to Censure, Foreign or Domestick; neither afraid of unjust Oppression, nor Courting Partial Favour, equally defying Fear and Hope, and every thing but Truth.
The Author pretends to no extraordinary Gift of Instruction, but while detecting the Contradictions in the Politicks of this hoodwink’d Age, is the Work before him; he thinks himself in his proper Duty, and hopes no People, either abroad or at home, will think themselves concern’d, in his saying, he resolves to go thro’ with it.
He presumes so much on the Convictive Invincible Power of Truth, that he expects it will bear it self up, and him upon it, above the Waves and Storms of all the Seas of Faction and Parties, he may be obliged to Steer thro’; and if not, he resolves to venture the Shipwreck.
He doubts not to force, even those People that will not Practise what his Arguments move to, yet at the same time to confess they are just, and to own the reason of them. Continue reading Saturday, August 12. 1704.
OUR last Review names two Pretences, which some will have pass for the Reasons of the Swedes pushing on the Affair of Poland, viz. Liberty and Religion.
I have said something already relating to the Swedes Generosity, and the Attempt of setting a Nation free, delivering them from the Bondage of the present King, and his Tyrannical Encroachments on their Liberties, his Saxon Forces, Muscovian Allyances, &c.
Liberty and Religion are the two Capital Pretences in all the Civil Broils of the World; how the latter of these has been box’d about the World by the Artifice of Princes; how Men of Pretence have made it the Stalking-Horse of their Private Interest and Corrupt Designs, I hinted at in the Review N˚ 42. and how far this has been either pretended or design’d in the present Polish Expedition of the Swedes, I shall farther Debate in the Process of this Paper.
Whether his Swedish Majesty ever made the Protestant Religion any Pretence to this War is not Material, and I shall make no difficulty to grant the Negative; but for the Notion of Liberty, the Freedom of the Common-Wealth, the Delivering them from the Tyranny of the Saxons, and the Invasions of Foreign Forces, I appeal to the King of Sweden’s Letter to the Cardinal Primate, to all the Memorials of the Swedish Ministers; and lastly to the Instrument or Declaration of the Rocockz, or Confederacy at Warsaw, where after the long Enumeration of the pretended Invasions of their Liberties by the Prince, they fly to the King of Sweden for the Restoring the Liberty of Poland; they Renounce their Allegiance to King Augustus, Declare the Interregnum, and depend upon the Power of the Swedish Arms to set them at Liberty, and to Grant them the Opportunity of a free Election. Continue reading Saturday, August 5. 1704.
THE Story of the Swedes, I foresee, will lead me into a Chapter which I had design’d as the Third in Order. The Order of my Story directed me,
First, To treat of the French Greatness.
Secondly, By what means they came to be so Great.
Thirdly, The Influence the Greatness of France has now, and for a long time has had, on the Affairs of Europe. Continue reading Tuesday, August 1. 1704.
HE is but a sorry Physician that tells us a Disease, but prescribes no Remedy: I have Entertain’d the World, in three Reviews together, with the Case of the Swedes, in the Dispute with Poland, and the War of the North; I have insisted long upon this Head, and ventur’d at an Essay on the great Damage done the Confederacy in General, and the Protestant Religion in Particular; I have said much of their opening a Gap in the Confederacy, at which the French Power has broke in; and I am yet unconvinc’d of any Mistake in the Matter.
I am oblig’d now to apply the Remedy to this Evil, and answer this great Question, How shall we help it?
I confess I could better have answered it six Months ago, and shown how you might have help’d it, than I can say now how it shall be help’d; but it may not be too late yet, especially if the King of Poland and the Confederacy can hold out but one Year longer.
If any Man ask me why I make an if of the latter, I answer, If the Duke of Marlborough succeeds in his Design on Bavaria, there is no doubt indeed of it; but if that had either been not undertaken, or had miscarried, I would not have answered for the Subsistence of the Confederacy one Year longer. Continue reading Saturday, July 29. 1704.