Tuesday, October 31. 1704.

Numb. 69.

THE poor Protestants in Hungary, when Count Teckely took Arms, were something, in my Opinion, like the disciples of our Saviour, who thought he was come to restore the Temporal Kingdom to Israel: The Innocent People had been Insulted, and ill Treated by the Germans, but especially by the Priests; who always taking Care to misrepresent them to the Emperor, as the Principals in the Discontents and Disturbances of the Hungarians; took Care, also that whatever Breaches happen’d between the Hungarians and the Germans, were upon all occasions, plac’d to the account of the Protestants: Upon these suggestions, the Priests, like Satan in the Case of Job, got the Power of them, and had them committed, as it were, to their Discretion, with a Behold! He is in thy hands.

Nor did the Emperor in this Case, imitate the Merciful part of the Almighty’s Commission to Satan, in the Case of Job, but save his Life; for these poor Miserables were deliver’d over, without any Restriction, to the Soldiers, and to the Priests; the first it may be suppos’d, had little compassion for their goods, the latter had less for their Lives and Posterity; and in the Prosectution of this Latitude, their churches were seiz’d, their Schools dissolv’d, their Estates and Honours sequestred, their Persons imprisoned, and drag’d to Publick Executions; all manner of Injuries and Oppressions practised upon the People, and all sorts of Cruelties upon their Ministers, 200 of which we find at one time in the Spanish Galleys, coupled with Turks, Moors, and Malefactors, and Condemn’d to the Miseries of the Oar, a Martyrdom, if I may be allow’d to be Judge, much worse, and more intolerable than the severest Tortures of a Dioclesian Persecution.

Yet under all these Extremities, the horror of which I cannot pretend to describe by words, nor can the 24 Letters, be capable of such a Position, as to Convey true and proportion’d Idea’s of their Sufferings, to the Mind; yet I say, under all these Extremities, the Protestants of Hungary never offer’d to take Arms, or to rise in their own Defence; never Oppos’d Force to Violence, or Defended the Just and Native Right they had, as Men and Christians, to the Freedom and Independency of Conscience; but Patiently, and with a Passive Fortitude, unexampled in these latter Ages of the World, submitted their Necks to the Yoke of Persecution, and became Martyrs to their Cause, chearfully Suffering all the Indignities, Tortures and Distresses, that a Cruel Ecclesiastick Tyranny, which is always the worst, could Invent.

Not that it was not Lawful for them to have, by Force, repell’d such unjust Oppressions; and that Murther, Tyranny and Injustice, may not be withstood by the Innocent Oppress’d People, whenever they find all Peaceable, Legal [290] Methods, ineffectual to Secure their Civil, or Religious Right – This is a Doctrine so rooted in the Laws of Nature, so confirm’d from Heaven, and so constantly Practised by all People, and Nations in the World, of what Religion or Profession soever; that to Oppose it, must be to extinguish Reason, obliterate Nature, contradict the Practice of Immemorial Custom, and give up the Power God has intrusted every Man with, to defend the Blessings bestow’d, and which it must be as Lawful to Maintain as Enjoy. Continue reading Tuesday, October 31. 1704.

Saturday, October 28. 1704.

Numb. 68.

OUR last Review brought on the great Argument of the Hungarians being the Causes of the War with the Turks, in 1682.

And first, I might ask our Opponents to produce any other Reason for that War; and to shew us, what even the Turks themselves had to alledge against the Emperor?

In all the Embassies the Emperor made to the Port, and in all the Treaties with the Turks, there was not one Pretence ever offered, why the Port was disgusted; no such thing as Reparation or Satisfaction Demanded, but in the last offer, which the Turk ever made to the Emperor; this was the main thing the Bassa insisted on, viz. That it should be Lawful for the Turks to assist the Malecontents of Hungaria.

Now let any Man but consider, what sort of a Peace this must have been, that the Emperor must have been ty’d up to have acted no Hostilities on the Turks, and at the same time they were at Liberty to have brought down the whole Force of the Ottoman Empire upon him, under the specious sham of assisting the HungariansContinue reading Saturday, October 28. 1704.

Tuesday, October 17. 1704.

Numb. 65.

THE Defeat of Count Teckely, and the Bassa of Great Warradin near Presburgh, was but the beginning of their Sorrows; about 12 days after the said Fight, he joyn’d another Body of Hungarians and Tartars, and Passing the River Mark, entred Moravia, Burnt and Ravag’d 16 or 18 Villages, in a most Barbarous manner, and Summon’d the whole Province to pay him Contribution.

The Duke of Lorrain Detach’d 500 Polanders, and 800 German Horse, with 200 Dragoons, to advance and put a stop to them, till the rest of the Army could be got together. This small Detachment met the Malecontents, at a River near Ancren, in Moravia; and being surrounded by them, were oblig’d to Charge their whole; Whether it was the extraordinary Bravery of the Imperialists, or which is more likely, the Hungarians intimidated and dispirited by the foulness of their Cause, and the hand of Heaven, we cannot be certain; but this small Party of 1500 Men, routed their whole Army, Kill’d 500 Men, Took 2000 Prisoners, 12 of their Standards, and recover’d all their Plunder, and particularly above 3000 poor Country People, who the Tartars had taken Prisoners, designing to sell them to the Turks.

Thus the Turks went on Prosperously enough with their Siege, yet the Hungarians were Beaten on all occasions.

Count Teckely, to be reveng’d for their Affront, obtains 2000 Turkish Horse of the Grand Visier, and joyning to them 1000 of his own, under a Brother of Count Budiani, Orders them to pass the River Waagh, and Ravage the Frontiers of the Hereditary Conntries between the Mark and Moravia; but the Duke of Lorrain sending Orders to some of the Saxon Forces which were on their March for the Relief of Vienna, they laid a Snare for them, and drew them into an Ambuscade, which unexpectedly surrounding them, cut them all off, or took them Prisoners; among the latter, the Young Count Budiani was Taken, and died of his Wounds, and Teckely’s Secretary was kill’d. Continue reading Tuesday, October 17. 1704.

Saturday, October 14. 1704.

Numb. 64.

THE Success of the Hungarians, under Count Teckely, after they had put themselves under the Protection of the Turk, is the present Subject we are upon; whether God Almighty, in his Righteous Providence, Punish’d them for their Infidelity and Distrust, in quitting their Dependence upon his Omnipotence, and flying to his Enemies for Aid; whether it was for their Disloyalty to the Emperor, or for their Cruelties in the Execution of their Resentments against the Germans; or for what other Reasons, I am willing to leave that Particular undecided.

’Tis my proper Business to make out the Fact, as I have alledg’d it in several past Papers; viz. That from the time that they abandon’d their Faith, Revolted from, and Betray’d the Christian Army, under the Duke of Lorrain, on the River Raab; the Consequences of which, were that dreadful Eruption of the Tartars into the German part of Lower Hungary, into Austria, Stiria, and Moravia; the Destruction of a Plentiful, Flourishing, and some of it Protestant Country, for above 100 Miles Square; the Murther or Captivity of above 40000 Innocent Christians, the Retreat or Flight of the Imperial Army, and after that the Siege of Vienna: From this time the Divine Protection visibly forsook them, and Heaven seem’d plainly to have left them to the Vengeance and Punishment of their own ways, fill’d them with their own doings, and they fell before the Germans as Grass beneath the hands of the Mower.

The first instance of this we have in Sir Roger Manley’s History aforemention’d, under the Head of the Seige of Vienna.

The Hungarians, who, as has been already Noted, Concerted Measures with the Grand Visier at Buda, had contriv’d effectually to Secure the Ruin of Vienna, by placing themselves on the Borders of Austria, so Securing the Passes of the Mountains on that side, effectually to prevent the King of Poland, who was then on his March to Relive the City; had they Succeeded in their Design, the Poles could not have come at all, or else must have March’d so far about, that it had been impossible for Vienna, which, as it was, found it self reduc’d to the last extremity, to have held out till their Arrival. Continue reading Saturday, October 14. 1704.

Tuesday, September 26. 1704.

Numb. 59.

IN the last Review, I brought the Oppressions of the Germans, and the Violences of the People, down to the very Article of Civil War, the Protestants Compos’d of and including Calvinists, Lutherans, Arians, Socinians and Greek Christians, call’d Rasciens, were all brought in, to make their Complaints rise up to a pitch, and heighten the Account of German Tyranny; these Complained their Privileges were infring’d, and taken from them; those Complain’d their Churches were taken away; and no doubt where the Soldiers prevail’d, the Priests under the Protection of the Military Power, made havock of the Protestants, and Sacrifized all to the Ecclesiastick Zeal; and Church-Tyranny as it always exceeds State-Tyranny, made the Cry of the Protestants, tho’ second to the Common Grievance, equal to it, If not Superiour in the Cause of Complaint.

We are now to suppose them up in Arms, and so universal the Insurrection, and the Emperor’s Affairs in such Disorder and Weakness, for want of Money and Management that almost on all Occasions, Count Paul Wesselini, the Palatine of Hungary, met with Success; the Germans were routed on several occasions, the Cities Revolted, and turn’d out the German Garrisons, or cut their Throats in their Quarters.

The Emperor’s Garrisons were ill provided, and worse paid; the Stores and Ammunitions embezzel’d; and in short every thing almost that was needful to oppose the Torrent of the Hungarian Success, seem’d to be wanting so that the Imperial Affairs went down on every side, and the Hungarians began to think of setting their Kingdom absolutely Independent of the House of Austria.

But Count Paul Wesselini, and the Hungarians, knew the Confusion of the Imperial Affairs, tho’ it was now their Advantage, would not always last, but that his Imperial Majesty would soon be rouz’d, and that they were not able at last to resist the German Power, when it should come on them with such Additions, as might be expected; upon these Considerations, They took Care to sollicit their Affairs at the Port, and by the help of their Agents, brought the Grand Seignor, to give all his Bassa’s and Commanders orders in their Favour, viz. To furnish them with Provisions, supply them with Arms and Ammunition; and upon all occasions, to permit ’em, if press’d by the Germans, to make their Retreat their Territories. Continue reading Tuesday, September 26. 1704.

Saturday, September 2. 1704.

Numb. 52.

I Have done with the Swedes: Monsieur L—n may concern himself to defend the Polish Election, in what Way and Method he pleases; I am perswaded he will never Compass it to his Master’s Reputation.

Conquest indeed may go a great way; Victory is so Sacred a thing, and Men are so apt to give the Sanction of Right, where Heaven gives the Blessing of Success, that to Argue against the Justice of that Cause, to which the Sword gives the Authority, is almost to oppose the General Stress of Human Reasoning.

If Stanislaus the Palatin of Posen, for as yet I can call him no more, by the Assistance of the Swede, Conquers the present King of Poland, who shall dispute his being Lawful King? I question whether the King of Sweden himself, or half the Kings in Europe have better Titles.

If Conquest be not a Lawful Title to a Crown, we must go back to the Oracle and Enquire, where the Grand Spring of Title is to be found; and unless the People come in to help us out, I doubt we shall be at a loss. Continue reading Saturday, September 2. 1704.

Tuesday, August 22. 1704.

Numb. 49.

OUR former Reviews have a little examined the Consequences of the Swedes, upon any disgust, going over to, and joyning with the French.

I think I set down the several Places where in such a Case he must, or should at least maintain Armies to defend his own Country; I resume that Head now, because I promis’d to shew the French could not be useful to them in such a Case.

’Tis very rational to suppose, that he could not joyn with France, but the King of Denmark would find it for his own Safety and Interest, to joyn with the Confederates; it was never known in any War, that those two Nations were ever of one side, they have had more Wars together than any two Nations in Christendom, even more than the Emperor and the Turks.

There is an indelible Jealousy rooted in the Hearts of them, one against another; and Providence, who Governs the whole World, seems to have plac’d it there, to provide for the rest; for should those two Nations agree together, their Country being the Magazine of the World for Naval Stores, it would be in their Power almost to tell any part of the World, as to Sea Affairs, when they should Fight, and when they should Submit; when they should fit out a Fleet, and when they should let it alone. Continue reading Tuesday, August 22. 1704.

Saturday, August 19. 1704.

Numb. 48.

TWO Reviews more would have dismiss’d the Article of Sweden, but I am oblig’d to Halt in the middle of the Story, upon the occasion of the great Turn of Affairs in Europe, from the late Victory at Hochstetten.

The Objectors to our Arguments seem to Reply with some Advantage, that French Power appears to be less Formidable, than at the beginning of these Papers I represented it, and that all the Terrible things which I foretold of it, are dash’t at one blow; that we need not concern our selves in the Quarrel between the Swede and the Pole, for the Business is done, the Confederacy stands upon its own Legs again, the Swede can now do us no harm, the Ruin of the Pole cannot affect it, and so I ought to have done with it.

The Victory of the Duke of Marlborough, I allow to be a very great Action, the Greatest, most Glorious, and most compleat Victory that I can find in History for above 200 Years past; and as no Man in Europe more heartily rejoyces at it, than the Author of these Papers, so perhaps I am ready to own it Greater in its Consequences than every body imagines.

The Defeat of the Army, barely as such, tho’ it be allow’d to be the Flower of the French Troops, and to be a great thing, is not all; there is the Duke of Bavaria left to the Emperors Mercy; that Fatal Breach, made in the Heart of the Empire, in a fair way to be heal’d to all the Advantage imaginable — There is the Duke of Savoy, who was upon the point of being ruin’d, in a fair way to be deliver’d, and perhaps so Succour’d, as to be likely to dislodge the French out of Italy. Continue reading Saturday, August 19. 1704.

Tuesday, August 15. 1704.

Numb. 47.

I Have done with the Swedes fighting for the Liberty of Poland — .

The next thing, which as ’tis alledg’d the Swedes fight for, is Religion, to pull down Popery and the Whore of Babylon.

Some Honest People, who are very Angry with the King of Poland for changing his Religion, and very willing to have the Swedes be Masters of Poland, because they hope they will plant the Protestant Religion there, are very much out of Humour with our late Reviews, which have dwelt so long upon the Matter, and so earnestly press’d the reducing the Swede to Terms of Peace.

These well-meaning Religious Gentlemen, shew their Zeal goes a great deal beyond their Understanding, as to the Publick Affairs of Europe; and of such I would ask, whether it is worse, that the Protestant Religion should not be replanted in Poland, or should be supplanted in England, Holland, and Germany? Continue reading Tuesday, August 15. 1704.

Tuesday, August 8. 1704.

Numb. 45.

IN Relating the Practice of all Wise Princes defending their own Territories, before they invaded their Neighbours; I come to the late King William, when Prince of Orange, Besieging Bonn.

It follows to examine, What Course the French King took in this Case: Did he, like the Swedes in Poland, push on his Conquests in the Netherlands, and leave the Dutch and German Army to Enter Lorrain, and Consequently France, and Ravage them at Pleasure? No: but finding he had taken so many strong Towns, as Employ’d him 100000 Men to Garrison, and that the Confederates, by taking Bonn had cut off the Communication between his Troops on the Upper Rhine, and those in Holland, and opened a way for their own to joyn; and that France lay Naked on that side; like a Wise Prince he chose the least Evil, he abandon’d at once, all his low Country Conquests to draw his Forces together, in Defence of his own Dominions; and this he did with such hast, that he quitted 42 Strong Places, in 16 or 20 days time.

I have not room to give an Encomium here to the Policy of the Prince of Orange, who could so sensibly touch the French in so nice an Article, as to regain from them so many Invincible Places, without the loss of a Man: Other Authors have made Great and Just Remarks on this, Sir William Temple in particular.

But I cannot refrain doing Justice to the K. of France, who, in this, show’d himself a true Father of his own Country, in that he chose to abandon all his Glory, quit the hopes he had entertain’d of so delicious a Conquest, as the Netherlands, two thirds of which he had in Possession; and all this to retrieve a Mistake, prevent the insulting of his own Country, and the Ruin of but one Province of his Inheritance. Continue reading Tuesday, August 8. 1704.