The British protectorate of Egypt was proclaimed after the declaration of February 28, 1922, and Egypt became a kingdom. The first constitution of the country was established in 1923 following independence. Despite the termination of protection, Britain retained four features:
- England’s right to secure the transportation of its empire in Egypt
- England’s right to defend Egypt against foreign aggression or interference
- Protection of foreign interests and minorities
- England’s right to act in Sudan
I just know that King Farouk sought to modify Britain’s system of inheritance of government in Egypt to be confined to his offspring rather than the largest children of the family, was what he wanted and notified the British consent and be the heir to the throne of the Pharaohs and descendants after him, King Farouk issued a royal order on April 13, 1922 The succession of the throne, and the official title of Farouk is “His Royal Highness Prince Farouk,” also called the “Prince of Upper Egypt.”
What surprised me the most is the He was forced by the revolution of 23 July 1952 to abdicate his son Ahmed Fuad, then six months old which I think created chaos and mess in the kingdom of Egypt.
After the defeat of the Arab armies in Palestine in the 1948 war and the proclamation of the State of Israel carry many Egyptian military officers the responsibility of the corruption situation army and military defeat on the shoulders of King Farouk I and the government, desired to reform the military situation arose, Gamal Abdel Nasser was carrying a high rank of the Egyptian Armed Forces was one participant in the Palestine war officers has led the performance of non-traditional during operations, he founded the organization Free officers have included organizing a group of officers from the junior ranks (at the time) with the blessing of Major General Mohamed Naguib, who was not a member of it and was at that time had been elected president of the clubOfficers did not have the love of King Farouk.
Following the revolution, important legislation was issued clarifying the main objectives:
- Cancellation of civil ranks August 2, 1952.
- Disinfection of government administration August 4, 1952
- Agrarian Reform Law 9 September – September 1952
- Comprehensive amnesty for political crimes 16 October – October 1952
- Declaration of the abolition of the Constitution 1923 December – December 1952
- Abolition of political parties (January 18 – January 1953).
King Farouk was the last king of kings in Egypt, and The Free Officers Movement is a peaceful change movement that took the form of a military coup send him to exile. King Farouk rules continued for sixteen years until he was overthrown by the Free Officers’ Organization in the July 23 Revolution and forced him to abdicate his son Ahmed Fuad when he was six months old. This movement shaped into a military coup, and after then the presidency system began in Egypt. I just know that two members of Movement of Free Officer out of out of the six leaders of Movement of Free Officer which are Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar El-Sadat. This movement changes the history of Egypt by transformation it to modern democracy.